Martin (1992: 410, 411):
Metaphorical qualities and actions are illustrated in the following clauses from [6:23]. Their function there is mainly to package experiential meaning for realisation as New.
[6:23] m. The war had also revealed inadequacies in Australia’s scientific and research capabilities. n. After the war strenuous efforts were made to improve these. o. The Australian National University was established with an emphasis on research. p. The government gave its support to the advancement of science in many areas, including agricultural production.
Table 6.18. Unpacking experiential metaphors in text [6:23:m-p] metaphorical congruent quality inadequacies inadequate capabilities capable process efforts try to do emphasis emphasise research research support support advancement advance production produce participant scientific science agricultural agriculture strenuous strain
 The grammatical metaphor in (m), involves a semantic figure being incongruently realised as a nominal group (inadequacies in Australia’s scientific and research capabilities) instead of congruently as an attributive clause (Australia’s scientific and research capabilities are inadequate) — whose Carrier also involves the metaphorical realisation of a figure as a nominal group (Australia’s scientific and research capabilities).
The grammatical metaphor in (n) involves a semantic process being incongruently realised grammatically as the Thing (efforts) of a nominal group, thereby giving the 'process thing' modal responsibility by serving as Subject. The word strenuous is not metaphorical, since it is a quality realised congruently as an adjective.
The grammatical metaphor in (o), involves a semantic figure being incongruently realised grammatically as a prepositional phrase (with an emphasis on research) instead of congruently as a clause (emphasising research).
The grammatical metaphor in (p) involves a semantic process being incongruently realised grammatically as the Thing (support) of a nominal group, and semantic figures being incongruently realised as nominal groups (the advancement of science, agricultural production).
 Neither of the 'process thing' metaphors (effort, support) are packaged as New information here; the unmarked New in the respective information units is improve and in many areas. Halliday & Matthiessen (1999: 401) explain the discourse function of ideational metaphor as follows:
But ideational grammatical metaphors typically have a discourse function of this kind; they are as it were pressed into service by the textual metafunction, to provide alternative groupings of quanta of information.
 As the table illustrates, ideational metaphor is viewed here only from the perspective of elemental metaphors arising from transcategorisation; see Halliday & Matthiessen (1999: 242ff).